Winter in France is often considered as the least popular season for tourism in the country. This is a coldest season of the year when the weather, gloomy and rough, forces the vegetation into a well earned pause. Trees are leafless, their trunks of a darkish-grey colour, and depending on the sky, snow and ice cover entire regions, disrupting human activity. Once the cheerful Christmas and New Year’s celebrations have gone, the long months of January and February are not a season one particularly anticipates in Europe. However they are many light-hearted celebrations and events happening to cheer everyone up.
Winter in France: the calendar
Officially the season of Winter starts on the 21st December and ends of the 20th March the following year.
Winter officially starts on 21 December in Europe, the date of the Winter solstice and ends on 20 March the following year. For meteorologists and many French people, Winter runs from approximately 1 December to the beginning of March. Although most of December officially belongs to Autumn, the last month of the year is often thought to be part of Winter because cold and snow occur throughout the country.
- Four Sundays before Christmas – Advent (l’Avent)
- 21 December – beginning of Winter
- 25 December – Christmas (Noël)
- 1 January – New Year’s Day
- 6 January – Epiphany (l’Épiphanie)
- January-beginning of February – Les Soldes d’Hiver. The big retail sales in January and February. There are only two major sales periods in France whose dates are regulated by the French government: just after Christmas and in July.
- 2 February – Candlemas (la Chandeleur)
- 14 February – Valentine’s Day (la Saint-Valentin)
- February or March – Shrove Tuesday and the Carnivals (Mardi-Gras et les carnavals)
- 21 March – start of Spring
The weather in Winter
The average temperatures are often just below zero and can go up to a maximum of ten degrees in the afternoon.
Winter can be tough in some mountainous parts of France. In the Jura Mountains, a record of -41°C was recorded in 1985 in the little town of Mouthe.
On the opposite, the coastal towns of Corsica can enjoy average temperatures of 9°C during the season of Winter.
In Paris, sunshine is rare but the closeness of the sea means that temperatures are generally above freezing (around 7°C). For a few nights, temperatures can go down to – 5°C.
Often Winter is associated with snow but it appears more rarely on the plains in the South of the Loire and in Paris. However snow falls abundantly in the mountain areas particularly in the Alps and the Pyrenees. The first snow of winter can cause massive transport disruption in a region.
The Winter solstice occurs on the first day of the season (21 December). It is the day of the year which has fewest hours of daylight. The solstice is closely associated with Christmas with the meaning of rebirth with the hope of the coming of the better days of spring.
Visiting France in Winter
Visiting sites and monuments in France is ideal in Winter as it is a low touristic season.
During Winter in France, people on vacation will choose between cool winter sports in the mountains and mild Mediterranean destinations.
Winter in the mountains
The Winter sports season takes place in January and February in the Alps and the Pyrenees. Millions of people come to France in Winter as the country has some of the world’s top resorts. A wide range of activities is possible: downhill skiing, cross-country skiing, snowboarding, snow shoeing, dog sledding, ice climbing and ice rappelling.
Some of the largest connected ski areas in the world are found in the French Alps:
- Les Trois Vallées (Courchevel, Méribel, Les Menuires, and Val Thorens): 338 slopes, 600 km.
- Portes du Soleil (Avoriaz, Châtel, Morzine, and Abondance): 288 slopes, 650 km.
- Paradiski (La Plagne, Peisey-Vallandry, Les Arcs): 239 slopes, 420 km.
- Évasion Mont-Blanc (Megève, Saint-Gervais, Les Contamines Monjoie): 183 slopes, 420 km.
- Espace Killy (Tignes, Val-d’Isère): 137 slopes, 300 km.
- Les Grandes Rousses (L’Alpe d’Huez): 117 slopes, 236 km.
- Les Deux Alpes and La Grave: 69 slopes, 220 km.
Ski resorts in the Alps are extremely busy during the February school holidays and accommodation can be very expensive and should be planned well in advance.
Winter by the sea
Since the 19th century, the sea-resorts have attracted millions of visitors, some of them illustrious (Queen Victoria, Robert Louis Stevenson…). Places like Biarritz in the Basque Country and Menton in the French Riviera enjoy an exceptionally mild climate. Already in the 19th century, even before the region of Nice belonged to France, British tourists flocked to Nice and Menton to benefit from the mild climate during the winter season. In February and March, Menton hosts the popular Lemon Festival.
Our pages on WINTER IN FRANCE
Winter in France: English-French Vocabulary
(f) for féminin, (m) for masculin, (adj) for adjective and (v) for verbs
- Advent = Avent (m)
- Autumn = automne (m)
- Candlemas = chandeleur (f)
- carnival = carnaval (m)
- Christmas = Noël
- December = décembre
- Epiphany = épiphanie (f)
- fall = automne (m)
- February = février
- French Riviera = Côte d’Azur (f)
- March = mars
- mountain = montagne (f)
- New Year’s Day = Nouvel An / Jour de l’An (m)
- resort = station (f)
- sales = soldes (f,p)
- season = saison (f)
- Shrove Tuesday = Mardi-Gras (m)
- to ski = skier (v)
- ski resort = station de sports d’hiver (f)
- sky = ciel (m)
- snow = neige (f)
- to snow = neiger (v)
- solstice = solstice (m)
- Spring = printemps (m)
- temperature = température (f)
- tree = arbre (m)
- Valentine’s Day = Saint-Valentin (f)
- weather = temps (m) / météo (f)
- Winter = hiver (m)
- Winter in France = l’hiver en France