Rouen is the historic capital of the ancient Duchy of Normandy and remains the chief city of the new region of Normandy (Normandie). In the Middle-Ages, Rouen was one of France’s largest and most prosperous towns and the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy.
Rouen is indeed a very ancient city which was called Rotomagus during the Roman era. At that time, Rotomagus was already an important trading town with an amphitheatre and thermae.
When the Vikings first made their incursion up the Seine River in 841, Rouen was overrun and consequently became the Normans’ capital from 912 until the time of William the Conqueror, who decided to establish his castle at Caen.
In 1150, Rouen was established as a self-governing city and its founding charter granted the town a large degree of autonomy.
Throughout the Middle-Ages, the Normand city went through several Great Fires and in 1200 fire destroyed part of the former cathedral. In 1204, Philip II Augustus of France took Rouen and annexed Normandy to the Kingdom of France. He dismantled the Norman castle, which had been built upon the site of the Roman amphitheatre and built the Chateau Bouvreuil.
With easy access to the sea through the Seine corridor, Rouen became a prosperous trading city and port, exporting wine and wheat to England and importing tin and wool in return. As for wool imports, Rouen specialised in the production of textiles that were marketed at the Champagne fairs, in direct competition with the other prosperous cities of Flanders and Brabant.
When the city went through urban turmoil in the 14th century with the assassination of the mayor and the pillage of noble mansions, King Philip IV of France responded by temporarily suspending the city’s charter and its prosperous monopoly over river traffic.
During the Hundred Years’ War in the 15th century, Rouen played an important part in the history of France, which is still remembered today and taught in school. In 1419, Rouen, Normandy and the surrounding regions were conquered by Henry V of England, of the House of the Plantagenets. The major character to be remember vividly until today is certainly Joan of Arc (in French “Jeanne d’Arc“), who was burned at the stake on the 30th May 1431. Some 20 years later, in 1449, King Charles VII seized Rouen back for France.
Much later, in the 20th century, during the Second World War, Rouen was damaged again, this time by Allied bombs and the cathedral narrowly escaped total destruction.
In the 21st century, Rouen is still thriving as a busy and thrilling city, offering its visitors a superbly restored town centre and a range of fascinating events such as the Armada de Rouen, a gathering of some of the world’s largest sailing boats.