Thanksgiving is celebrated in the United States on the fourth Thursday in November (25 November in 2021). Thanksgiving is undoubtedly the most celebrated day in the United States and perhaps the most important dinner of the year. It is a holiday that celebrates close family and friends and the autumn harvest. At the heart of this holiday is a deep sense of gratitude. As the name implies, it is a day for giving thanks (rendre grâce). Do the French celebrate Thanksgiving? If so, what are the traditions of observing Thanksgiving in France?
What is the origin of Thanksgiving?
Historically, Thanksgiving is a harvest festival. In Europe, a ceremony was held in mid-August to celebrate the end of the harvest (Fête des Moissons). During this holiday, farmers thanked God with prayers and merrymaking.
The Pilgrim Fathers and the first Thanksgiving
In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers disembarked from the Mayflower in Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts. There they founded the Plymouth Colony.
However, the beginning of colonisation was difficult. The first winter is devastating. Of the one hundred and ten pilgrims, only fifty survive the cold and lack of food.
The survivors were saved by two natives named Squanto and Samoset. With the help of their tribe, the Wampanoags, they offered them food and taught them to fish, hunt and grow corn.
The first Thanksgiving was held in 1621 to celebrate the first harvest of the fall. Governor William Bradford decreed three days of thanksgiving. The settlers invited the Wampanoag chief, Massasoit, and 91 of his men to share a meal with them in thanks for their help.
The Pilgrim Fathers held an even larger thanksgiving celebration in 1623. That year, an unexpected rainfall allowed for a greater harvest.
On June 29, 1671, Charlestown held the first Thanksgiving to be decreed by a public administration.
From George Washington to the present day
October 1777 is a date that Americans remember fondly. It was the first time the 13 colonies came together to celebrate Thanksgiving on the occasion of their victory over the British at Saratoga.
On October 3, 1789, George Washington declared the first Thanksgiving Day for the nation. The President proclaimed Thanksgiving again in 1795.
During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national Thanksgiving Day on the last Thursday in November 1863.
However, in 1939, the administration of Franklin Roosevelt changed the date to the fourth Thursday in November.
Throughout the United States, Thanksgiving Day is a day of celebration. It is a time for families to gather around a big meal.
In New York, the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is one of the year’s highlights.
Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade
The annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City is the largest in the world. It is organised and presented on Thanksgiving Day by the US-based department store chain Macy’s.
Its first edition took place in 1924, making it the second oldest Thanksgiving Day parade in the United States, along with America’s Thanksgiving Parade in Detroit. The parade lasts three hours, from 9 am to 12 pm. The floats wind their way through the streets of Manhattan. The parade ends in front of Macy’s Herald Square. It includes many floats and fifteen balloons representing pop-culture characters.
Americans can follow the parade from home as it is broadcast on NBC.
A day for giving and charity
This time of year is a time for giving and charity. Many meals are served to the homeless by anonymous people and celebrities. Associations distribute millions of frozen turkeys to disadvantaged families.
Many religious services take place on this day. They take the opportunity to give thanks for the blessings received throughout the year.
All American families come together on this day for a large, traditional family meal at home. This big meal is also offered to American soldiers based abroad.
Turkey Day: une histoire de Dinde!
Many Americans eat turkey on this day. Thanksgiving is, therefore, “The Turkey Day”!
The turkey is the queen of the party and the main dish. Americans stuff it with chestnuts, apples, or sausages. It is usually served with mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes, or a squash gratin. Green beans and corn are also on the menu, as is cranberry sauce.
The presidential pardon of the Thanksgiving turkey
Since the middle of the 20th century, the President of the United States has practised “pardoning” one or two Thanksgiving turkeys each year, thus allowing these birds to escape the slaughter.
The Pumpkin Pie
The traditional American Thanksgiving dessert is Pumpkin Pie (tarte au potiron) which closes the meal.
However, in some families, the Pecan Pie replaces the Pumpkin Pie in Georgia. And Sweet potato Pie takes pride of place on North Carolina tables.
Thanksgiving in France?
Asking whether we celebrate Thanksgiving in France is a bit like asking whether we celebrate Bastille Day in the United States!
Among the autumn celebrations, Halloween is the one that comes directly from the United States and is slowly but surely taking root in French society. However, even though French and European cultures borrow a lot from American culture, some US celebrations are still unknown in Europe. Thanksgiving is one of them.
For the moment, in France, Thanksgiving is timidly celebrated. A few restaurants now offer menus specially designed for the occasion.
But Thanksgiving in France is starting to become known thanks to the many American series such as Friends, Gossip Girl, The Simpsons or The Office. Thus, each season features Thanksgiving, during which the characters gather around a turkey or attend the famous Macys’ parade in New York.
How to celebrate Thanksgiving in France?
To celebrate Thanksgiving in France, it is better to meet expatriate Americans in France. Some places like American bars or associations organise traditional meals where all American citizens gather. Check this article on evous.fr for ideas of places where to go in 2021 for Thanksgiving in Paris.
Black Friday in France
It is paradoxical that while the French people are unfamiliar with the Thanksgiving holiday, they have seized upon the concept of Black Friday!
The day after Thanksgiving is also a particular day. This Friday, Black Friday, is the occasion of significant sales in practically all shops. It marks the start of the Christmas shopping season.
Many Americans considered Black Friday as the unofficial start of the holiday season. In the United States, it is famous for its huge discounts. But also for creating a general hysteria as customers run from shop to shop looking for the best deals!
Where does Black Friday come from?
It seems that in the 1960s, Black Friday referred to the increased pedestrian and vehicle traffic at the start of the Christmas shopping season.
A few years later, shopping the day after Thanksgiving would bring in the “red” and thus the new positive numbers in black ink, hence the term “Black Friday”.
It was in the 1970s that American retailers decided to adopt this expression to designate the start of Christmas shopping.
The expansion of Black Friday in France
In France, Black Friday (Vendredi Noir) is a day of massive promotions. It also affects products usually not sold out (computers, smartphones, etc.). The Internet mainly drives the event. Some retailers take advantage of the opportunity and offer significant discounts valid for:
- only 24 hours (the traditional duration of Black Friday) or
- the entire weekend that follows.
This is a French specificity. Indeed, in the United States, the big Black Friday promotions occur directly in the shops. On the following Monday, Cyber Monday, retailers offer price reductions on their websites.
Cyber Monday also takes place in France. However, it is only an extension of Black Friday since everything takes place on the Internet from Friday to Monday. Hence the name of this period: Cyber-Week.
In France, Black Friday started modestly in 2013 and took off in 2016.
In 2014, Auchan, Fnac, Darty, La Redoute, Leroy Merlin and Géant Casino, among others, launched Black Friday in their French stores for the first time.
The French interest in Black Friday took off in the mid-2010s
Since then, French interest in the event has increased every year. In November 2016, Google searches related to Black Friday in France more than doubled compared to the previous year’s period, reaching 2.4 million.
In 2015 and 2016, Amazon and Cdiscount were the most visited merchant sites by the French in the run-up to Black Friday, followed by Fnac, SFR and Darty. The most popular product categories during Black Friday in 2016 were electronics, home and fashion.
In 2017, Black Friday did no longer only take place online but increasingly in physical stores.
Black Friday in France during the pandemic
On 31 October 2020, the French government put lockdown measures in place to fight the pandemic’s spread. The Minister of Finance, Bruno Le Maire, invited French retailers to postpone the Black Friday promotions this year.
On 20 November, the French government asked e-commerce companies such as Amazon and supermarket chains to postpone the Black Friday discount shopping promotion by one week to 4 December.